Пояснительная записка к закону о компаниях 2006 года

Расширенные комментарии к закону о компаниях 2006 года (собрание законодательства Великобритании; 2006; глава 46). Подготовлены Правительством Великобритании и содержат дополнительные сведения к положениям закона. Не входят в текст закона и не проходили процедуру одобрения в Парламенте. Полный текст оригинала на английском языке.

Понедельник, 03 июня 2019 апдейт:

Introduction

1.These explanatory notes relate to the Companies Act 2006 (c.46) which received Royal Assent on 8 November 2006. They have been prepared by the Department of Trade and Industry (DTI) in order to assist the reader in understanding the Act. They do not form part of the Act and have not been endorsed by Parliament.

2.The notes need to be read in conjunction with the Act. They are not, and are not meant to be, a comprehensive description of the Act. So where a section or part of a section does not seem to require any explanation or comment, none is given. Further, where provisions in the Act restate what was in the Companies Act 1985 (the 1985 Act) an explanation is not always given, except to the extent required to explain changes to associated provisions.

Background

3.The UK was one of the first nations to establish rules for the operation of companies. Today our system of company law and corporate governance, setting out the legal basis on which companies are formed and run, is a vital part of the legal framework within which business is conducted. As the business environment evolves, there is a risk that the legal framework can become gradually divorced from the needs of companies, in particular the needs of smaller private businesses, creating obstacles to ways that companies want and need to operate.

4.In March 1998, the DTI commissioned a fundamental review of company law. An independent Steering Group led the «Company Law Review» (CLR) whose terms of reference required them to consider how core company law could be modernised in order to provide a simple, efficient and cost effective framework for British business in the twenty-first century. After extensive consultation with interested parties, the CLR presented its Final Report to the Secretary of State for Trade and Industry on 26 July 2001. The report contained a range of recommendations for substantive changes to many areas of company law, and a set of principles to guide the development of the law more generally, most notably that it should be as simple and as accessible as possible for smaller firms and their advisers and should avoid imposing unnecessary burdens on the ways companies operate.

5.Many of the provisions of the Act implement CLR recommendations. The Government set out and consulted on its intentions in this regard in the White Papers «Modernising Company Law» (July 2002) and «Company Law Reform» (March 2005). The 2005 White Paper included approximately 300 draft clauses and described in detail the policy intention for other areas. Further clauses were made publicly available for comment in July, September and October 2005. The Companies Bill, then titled the Company Law Reform Bill, was introduced to the House of Lords on 4 November 2005.

Overview of the Structure of the Act

6.The general arrangement of the Act is as follows:

Part summary

Parts 1 to 7 The fundamentals of what a company is, how it can be formed and what it can be called.

Parts 8 to 12 The members (shareholders) and officers (management) of a company

Parts 13 and 14 How companies may take decisions

Parts 15 and 16 The safeguards for ensuring that the officers of a company are accountable to its members

Parts 17 to 25 Raising share capital, capital maintenance, annual returns, and company charges

Parts 26 to 28 Company reconstructions, mergers and takeovers

Parts 29 to 39 The regulatory framework, application to companies not formed under the Companies Acts and other company law provisions

Parts 40 to 42 Overseas disqualification of directors, business names and statutory auditors

Part 43 Transparency obligations

Parts 44 to 47 Miscellaneous and general

Summary of Legislative Changes

7.The company law provisions of the 2006 Act (Parts 1 to 39) restate almost all of the provisions of the 1985 Act, together with the company law provisions of the Companies Act 1989 (the 1989 Act) and the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Act 2004 (C(AICE) Act 2004). Paragraphs 9 and 10 below contain details of the provisions that remain in those Acts. The company law provisions also codify certain aspects of the case law.

8.Tables of origins and destinations are available that show the origins of the company law provisions of the Act by reference to enactments in force on 8 November 2006. The tables identify where provisions of the existing law have been re-enacted with or without changes and where provisions of the new law have no predecessor or are fundamentally different from their predecessors.

9.Of company law provisions in the Acts referred to in paragraph 77, the only ones that remain are those on investigations that go wider than companies (Part 14 of the 1985 Act) and the provisions on community interest companies in Part 2 of the C(AICE) Act 2004.

10.The non-company law provisions in those Acts that remain are:

a) Part 18 of the 1985 Act (floating charges and receivers (Scotland)),

b) Part 3 of the 1989 Act (powers to require information and documents to assist overseas regulatory authorities),

c) Section 112 to 116 of the 1989 Act (provisions about Scottish incorporated charities)

d) Part 7 of the 1989 Act (provisions about financial markets and insolvency)

e) Schedule 18 of the 1989 Act (amendments and savings consequential upon changes in the law made by the 1989 Act)

f) Sections 14 and 15 of the C(AICE) Act 2004 (supervision of accounts and reports), and

g) Sections 16 and 17 of the C(AICE) Act 2004 (bodies concerned with accounting standards etc).

11.In non-company law areas the Act makes amendments to other legislation, in particular the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000, and also makes new provision of various kinds. The main areas in which provision of this kind is made are:

overseas disqualification of company directors (Part 40),

business names (Part 41) – replacing the Business Names Act 1985,

statutory auditors (Part 42) – replacing Part 2 of the Companies Act 1989, and

transparency obligations (Part 43) – amending Part 6 of the Financial Services and Markets Act 2000.

Territorial Extent and Devolution

Northern Ireland

12.Company law is a transferred matter. Currently, the provisions of GB company law are generally replicated, some time later, in separate Northern Ireland legislation. The Act provides for a single company law regime applying to the whole of the UK, so that companies will be UK companies rather than GB companies or Northern Ireland companies as at present. This does not affect the legislative competence of Northern Ireland: company law remains a transferred matter, and the Act could be separately amended or repealed in Northern Ireland if that were so desired.

13.Where a note describes a particular section as restating or replacing a provision in the 1985 Act, the 1989 Act or the C(AICE)Act 2004, this should be read as applying equally to the corresponding provision of the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1986, the Companies (Northern Ireland) Order 1990 or the Companies (Audit, Investigations and Community Enterprise) Order 2005.

Scotland

14.Company law is a reserved matter and Companies Acts extend to the whole of Great Britain. However, there are several areas where, in legislating about companies, the Act deals with matters that are devolved:

changes (in Part 41) to the regulation of business names (a devolved matter) – these correspond to changes (in Part 5) to the regulation of company names (a reserved matter);

statutory guidance to prosecutors and other enforcement authorities in relation to a new offence of knowingly or recklessly causing an audit report to be misleading, false or deceptive – although the offence itself is a reserved matter, guidance is to be issued by the Lord Advocate in Scotland (see section 509);

changes relating to exemptions from audit requirements for companies that are charities (see section 1175);

conferral of a power on the Auditor General for Scotland to specify public bodies for his audit (see section 483).

These were the subject of a legislative consent motion agreed to by the Scottish Parliament on 16 March 2006.

Wales

15.Company law is not transferred to the Welsh Assembly. There are no provisions that impact on devolved competences.

Crown Dependencies

16.Part 28 of the Act (takeovers) contains provision enabling it to be extended by Order in Council to the Isle of Man or any of the Channel Islands. This reflects the existing jurisdiction of the Takeover Panel (as the takeover regulator) and has been agreed by the relevant Island authorities. If the power were to be exercised, there would be further consultation with the Island authorities beforehand.

Содержание

Introduction
Part 1: General Introductory Provisions
Part 2: Company Formation
Part 3: a Company’s Constitution
Part 4: a Company’s Capacity and Related Matters
Part 5: a Company’s Name
Part 6: a Company's Registered Office
Part 7: Re-Registration as a Means of Altering a Company’s Status
Part 8: a Company’s Members
Part 9: Exercise of Members’ Rights
Part 10: Company Directors
Part 11: Derivative Claims and Proceedings by Members
Part 12: Company Secretaries
Part 13: Resolutions and Meetings
Part 14: Control of Political Donations and Expenditure
Part 15: Accounts and Reports
Part 16: Audit
Part 17: a Company’s Share Capital
Part 18: Acquisition by Limited Company of Its Own Shares
Part 19: Debentures
Part 20: Private and Public Companies
Part 21: Certification and Transfer of Securities
Part 22: Information about Interests in Company’s Shares. Background
Part 23: Distributions
Part 24: a Company’s Annual Return
Part 25: Company Charges
Part 26: Arrangements and Reconstructions
Part 27: Mergers and Divisions of Public Companies
Part 28: Takeovers Etc
Part 29: Fraudulent Trading
Part 30: Protection of Members Against Unfair Prejudice
Part 31: Dissolution and Restoration to the Register
Part 32: Company Investigations: Amendments
Part 33: Uk Companies Not Formed under Companies Legislation
Part 34: Overseas Companies
Part 35: the Registrar of Companies
Part 36: Offences under the Companies Acts
Part 37: Companies: Supplementary Provisions
Part 38: Companies: Interpretation
Part 39: Companies: Minor Amendments
Part 40: Company Directors: Foreign Disqualification Etc
Part 41: Business Names
Part 42: Statutory Auditors
Part 43: Transparency Obligations and Related Matters
Part 44: Miscellaneous Provisions
Part 45: Northern Ireland
Part 46: General Supplementary Provisions
Part 47: Final Provisions

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