Воскресенье, 04 августа 2019

4. Introduction. The current law

Chapter 4: The «all-crimes'» approach


4.1 In this chapter we discuss the merits of the «all-crimes» approach to money laundering offences in the Proceeds of Crime Act 2002 («POCA») and the effects of this approach on suspicious activity reporting.

4.2 The breadth of the definition of «criminal property» in section 340 of POCA means the principal money laundering offences apply to dealings with property derived from any criminal offence - the predicate offence. A consequence of this is that individuals in the regulated sector are obliged to report suspected laundering of the proceeds of any criminal conduct. Similarly, any person who handles property he or she suspects to be derived from crime may need to seek authorised consent to avoid criminal liability under sections 327-329. In either case an individual submitting an authorised disclosure (DAML SAR) or required disclosure does not have to turn their mind to what predicate offence might have led to property becoming classified as criminal property.

The current law

4.3 The obligation to report suspected laundering of the proceeds of «all-crimes» derives from the combined effect of the way «criminal conduct», «criminal property» and «money laundering» are defined in section 340 of POCA. The legislation provides:

(2) Criminal conduct is conduct which—

(a) constitutes an offence in any part of the United Kingdom, or

(b) would constitute an offence in any part of the United Kingdom if it occurred there.

(3) Property is criminal property if—

(a) it constitutes a person's benefit from criminal conduct or it represents such a benefit (in whole or part and whether directly or indirectly), and

(b) the alleged offender knows or suspects that it constitutes or represents such a benefit.

(11) Money laundering is an act which—

(a) constitutes an offence under section 327, 328 or 329,

(b) constitutes an attempt, conspiracy or incitement to commit an offence specified in paragraph (a),

(c) constitutes aiding, abetting, counselling or procuring the commission of an offence specified in paragraph (a), or

(d) would constitute an offence specified in paragraph (a), (b) or (c) if done in the United Kingdom.

4.4 A person «benefits from conduct» if he or she obtains property as a result of or in connection with the conduct.

4.5 Once an individual in the regulated sector suspects that they are dealing with

criminal property, sections 327, 328 and 329 of POCA prohibit the reporter from certain actions unless they make an authorised disclosure and receive appropriate consent to proceed with the transaction.

4.6 The obligation to report suspected money laundering in sections 330 to 332 will also apply.

4.7 In both cases, disclosures will be required regardless of the seriousness of the underlying offences that are suspected and irrespective of whether the reporter can identify what offence might have generated the benefit.

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